Show Comments ▼ whatsapp The US Treasury Secretary said yesterday the government will continue to guarantee residential mortgages, despite the demise of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Tim Geithner admitted at a White House summit on the future of the collapsed mortgage giants that the state still has a role to play in backing loans, in order to minimise the risk of further housing-led recessions. The news came as research in America suggested that residential construction projects fell again last month. KCS-content whatsapp Ad Unmute by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeBetterBe20 Stunning Female AthletesBetterBeUndoTotal PastThe Ingenious Reason There Are No Mosquitoes At Disney WorldTotal PastUndoTaonga: The Island FarmThe Most Relaxing Farm Game of 2021. No InstallTaonga: The Island FarmUndomoneycougar.comThis Proves The Osmonds Weren’t So Innocentmoneycougar.comUndoinvesting.comCanceled TV Shows Announced: Full Updated Listinvesting.comUndoNinjaJournalistAdvertisement 25 Cute Baby Animals That Will Melt Your HeartNinjaJournalistUndoSerendipity TimesInside Coco Chanel’s Eerily Abandoned Mansion Frozen In TimeSerendipity TimesUndoDefinitionDesi Arnaz Kept This Hidden Throughout The Filming of ‘I Love Lucy’DefinitionUndozenherald.comMeghan Markle Changed This Major Detail On Archies Birth Certificatezenherald.comUndo Tuesday 17 August 2010 8:24 pm Tags: NULL Read This Next’A Quiet Place Part II’ Sets Pandemic Record in Debut WeekendFamily ProofHiking Gadgets: Amazon Deals Perfect For Your Next AdventureFamily ProofBack on the Rails for Summer New York to New Orleans, Savannah and MiamiFamily ProofIndian Spiced Vegetable Nuggets: Recipes Worth CookingFamily ProofAmazon roars for MGM’s lion, paying $8.45 billion for studio behind JamesFamily ProofTortilla Mango Cups: Recipes Worth CookingFamily ProofYoga for Beginners: 3 Different Types of Yoga You Should TryFamily ProofWhat to Know About ‘Loki’ Ahead of Disney+ Premier on June 9Family ProofCheese Crostini: Delicious Recipes Worth CookingFamily Proof US to keep mortgage guarantee Share
Email Address The Puerto Rico Fiscal Agency and Financial Advisory Authority (AAFAF) has issued a request for proposals (RFP) seeking a consultancy firm to provide advisory services to the new Puerto Rico Gaming Commission. Topics: Legal & compliance Sports betting Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter Puerto Rico government seeks advisors for Gaming Commission Legal & compliance The Puerto Rico Fiscal Agency and Financial Advisory Authority (AAFAF) has issued a request for proposals (RFP) seeking a consultancy firm to provide advisory services to the new Puerto Rico Gaming Commission.The winning party will work with the Commission to draft regulations governing gambling in the US territory, as well as support the regulatory body with respect to activities under its jurisdiction such as sports betting, fantasy sports contests and esports.The consultancy will also be responsible for developing ways for the Commission to carry out its key duties, modelled on the processes employed by regulators in other US jurisdictions. In addition, the successful bidder will deliver interim progress reports.“This process will serve to identify qualified firms that meet the essential requirements to develop such regulations, thereby reinforcing the current public policy of Governor Wanda Vázquez Garced, which authorises sports betting, fantasy contests and electronic games,” AAFAF executive director and chief financial officer of the government, Omar Marrero, said.Read the full story on iGB North America. Regions: US AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter 3rd March 2020 | By contenteditor
What do you like most about playing full-back?I like the communication side and orchestrating the defence and counter-attack. You can’t do that at No 10.You helped England win the Junior World Cup in June. When did you first play for your country?I was part of the U19s development group but this year’s U20s Six Nations was my first cap. I’ve been lucky to play quite a few games at Bath but there’s something special about playing with guys from all around the country. It’s fantastic.What are your aims for the next year?To continue from where I left off last season. I know Bath have got talented young players coming in, but if I can still be involved that will be brilliant. LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS Tell us about your rugby background…My dad Steve coached my U7s team at Sherborne RFC and I stayed there through all the age groups. Bath picked me up at 16 and I got a sixth-form scholarship to Bryanston.Who are your mentors?Dad coached me until I was 13 or 14, then there’s Mike Pyrgos at Bryanston and Danny Grewcock and Dave Williams at Bath Academy.What is your position?Full-back or fly-half. I was a ten through the age groups but moved to full-back and really enjoyed it. At Bath I was second-choice full-back last season behind Nick Abendanon and I played the last few games. RW Verdict: At 6ft 4in and over 15st, this 19-year-old looks set for a big future with the West Country outfit.This was published in the September 2013 edition of Rugby World. Click here to see what’s in the current edition.
Molly James fue nombrada deputada directora de la Convención General An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Rector Hopkinsville, KY Rector Pittsburgh, PA Featured Events Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Rector Shreveport, LA Rector Belleville, IL Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Rector Martinsville, VA Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Rector Washington, DC The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Submit a Press Release Rector Bath, NC Associate Rector Columbus, GA Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Submit an Event Listing Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Rector Knoxville, TN Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME La Reverenda Dra. Molly James de West Hartford, Connecticut, ha sido nombrada deputada directora de la Convención General. Al anunciar este nombramiento, el Reverendo Canónigo Michael Barlowe, secretario y director de la Convención General, dijo: “Molly James aporta enormes dones y creatividad a la labor de la Convención General, convirtiéndose en un miembro central del talentoso equipo que envía el gobierno de La Iglesia Episcopal”.James fue seleccionada después de una búsqueda en toda la iglesia durante los últimos meses. En este nuevo rol, ella supervisará los informes parroquiales y diocesanos; coordinará con otros profesionales que trabajan en la convención y planificación de reuniones; trabajará en colaboración con el diputado para la legislación; y asistirá al director en sus diversos ministerios.Antes de este nombramiento, James sirvió en el personal del obispo para La Iglesia Episcopal en Connecticut como deán de formación, ayudando a re-imaginar y administrar el proceso de ordenación. También ejerce como presidenta de la Comisión Permanente sobre Estructura, Gobierno, Constitución y Cánones. Como diputada a la Convención General en 2018, James presidió el Comité Legislativo del Ministerio. También fue diputada en la Convención General de 2015, donde se desempeñó como secretaria adjunta del Comité Legislativo sobre Gobierno y Estructura. Ordenada en 2005 por la Reverendísima Chilton Knudsen en su estado natal de Maine, James ha servido como capellana de un hospital y como párroco. Tiene un doctorado en teología por la Universidad de Exeter (Reino Unido), una maestría en teología por el Seminario de Teología de Yale y una licenciatura en psicología por la Universidad de Tufts.En Connecticut, James ejerce como profesora adjunta en el Seminario de Hartford y en la Universidad de San José, centrándose en la ética y el cuidado pastoral. Su investigación doctoralWith Joyful Acceptance, Maybe se centró en el sufrimiento y el dolor y fue publicada en 2013 por Wipf and Stock. James también fue copresidente de Young Clergy Women International (una organización ecuménica de clérigos de mujeres menores de 40 años) y miembro de la junta de la Society of Scholar Priests. James y su esposo Reade (un ingeniero mecánico) viven en West Hartford, CT con sus dos hijos, Katherine y Halsted.Sobre la Oficina Ejecutiva de la Convención General.La Oficina Ejecutiva de la Convención General, o “GCO”, como se la llama a menudo, es una de las tres oficinas de La Iglesia Episcopal (las otras son la Oficina del Obispo Presidente y la Oficina del Presidente de la Cámara de los Diputados ). El GCO administra el gobierno de la Iglesia, y lo hace de varias maneras:La Convención General, la reunión trienal de la Cámara de los Diputados y la Cámara de los Obispos, junto con la reunión de las Mujeres de la Iglesia Episcopal y otras reuniones concurrentes de grupos de La Iglesia Episcopal.El trabajo del Consejo Ejecutivo de la Convención General.Las actividades de los diversos cuerpos interinos de la Convención General y los cientos de voluntarios que forman esos cuerpos.Reuniones oficiales de la Cámara de los Obispos y cualquier reunión interina de la Cámara de los Diputados.El ministerio de varios cuerpos ecuménicos, interreligiosos e inter-anglicanos de la Iglesia.El Informe Parroquial anual de la iglesia y la investigación asociada.Otras obligaciones derivadas de la Convención General y del Consejo Ejecutivo.El GCO también apoya al oficial ejecutivo en sus diversos roles:Como secretario corporativo de la Sociedad Misionera Doméstica y Extranjera (“DFMS”: la corporación religiosa sin fines de lucro con sede en Nueva York a través de la cual opera gran parte del ministerio de la iglesia).Como secretario del Consejo Ejecutivo.Como registrador de la Convención General (con deberes de certificación y autenticación para la consagración de los obispos).Dentro de la Comunión Anglicana, como secretario provincial de La Iglesia Episcopal.Como oficial principal de La Iglesia Episcopal. Posted Mar 18, 2019 Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Curate Diocese of Nebraska This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Rector Albany, NY Submit a Job Listing Director of Music Morristown, NJ Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Rector Smithfield, NC Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Rector Collierville, TN Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Youth Minister Lorton, VA Featured Jobs & Calls Press Release Service Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Rector Tampa, FL Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group
Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 Apopka City Council PreviewFrom the City of Apopka Public Information Office The City of Apopka will present two honors Wednesday to an Orange City man who rescued a driver from a fiery truck crash in August 2016 on State Road 429 in Apopka.Mayor Joe Kilsheimer will present Jason Allen Williams, 32, with a Carnegie Medal on behalf of the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission. For more than a century, the Commission has recognized nearly 10,000 people across the United States and Canada who performed acts of heroism in civilian life. Carnegie also provides financial assistance for those disabled and the dependents of those killed helping others.Apopka Fire Chief Chuck Carnesale will present Williams with an award from the Apopka Fire Department. The 2016 truck crash and rescue prompted Carnesale to seek measures to improve emergency rescue throughout Apopka to provide better and faster aid to highway vehicle crashes. The need for greater emergency resources is growing in Apopka with the coming of the Wekiva Parkway, now under construction in Northwest Orange County. The presentations will take place at the Apopka City Council meeting beginning at 7 p.m. Wednesday at Apopka City Hall, 120 E. Main St.Jason Allen Williams rescued Michael J. Bridges from a burning vehicle in Apopka on Aug. 4, 2016. Bridges, 61, was the driver of a grapple truck that left the roadway, traveled about 200 feet until it hit a ditch, rolled onto the driver side and caught fire.Williams, 32, a truck driver from Orange City, Fla., witnessed the accident and stopped to assist. He approached the front end of the vehicle, initially intending to break out the windshield, and heard screams coming from the passenger side. Despite flames burning at the front end and underside of the vehicle, Williams climbed on top the vehicle and opened the passenger door.He extended his head and arms inside to pull Bridges out, yet he slipped and fell from the truck. Williams again climbed to the top of the truck and reached inside, grasped Bridges by his belt and pulled him out of the vehicle. Bridges rolled over Williams, and both men fell from the vehicle to the ground. A woman who responded assisted Williams in aiding Bridges to safety.Flames grew to engulf the truck cab. Bridges required hospital treatment for his injuries, which included severe burns. Williams suffered minor burns, and he recovered.Carnegie’s “hero fund,” is administered by a 21-member commission in Pittsburgh that is charged with honoring “heroes of civilization.” The Carnegie Medal is a bronze medallion three inches in diameter and featuring the profile of founder Andrew Carnegie. The Anatomy of Fear LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply TAGSCarnegie Hero FundCity of Apopka Previous articleThe Apopka Voice Townhall Debates set for Seats #1 and #2Next articleApopka Police Department Arrest Report Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Please enter your name here You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here Please enter your comment!
“COPY” ArchDaily CopyHouses•Fukuoka, Japan ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/942803/en-house-shohei-ota-falsearchitects Clipboard “COPY” en House / Shohei Ota / ノarchitectsSave this projectSaveen House / Shohei Ota / ノarchitects Photographs: Yashiro Photo Office Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Photographs Japan 2020 Architects: Shohei Ota / ) architects Area Area of this architecture project Save this picture!© Yashiro Photo Office+ 23Curated by Hana Abdel Share Projects Year: en House / Shohei Ota / ノarchitects ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/942803/en-house-shohei-ota-falsearchitects Clipboard Houses Area: 458 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Manufacturers: BEAL, Toto, IOC FlooringArchitect In Charge:Shohei OtaDesign Team:Shohei Ota / ノarchitects, Shohei OtaEngineering And Construction:HOUSTEPEngineering:HOUSTEPConstruction:HOUSTEPCity:FukuokaCountry:JapanMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Yashiro Photo OfficeRecommended ProductsWoodEGGERLaminatesWoodTechnowoodPergola SystemsEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesFranken-SchotterFacade System – LINEAEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesAlucoilStructural Honeycomb Panels – LarcoreText description provided by the architects. It is a housing for a co-working couple and two sons who dreamed of a relaxing and open life and purchased land in the suburbs a little away from the city. The only request from the owner was that they wanted to live with his family in a spacious house. This house, named “en”, is a midway point between two opposing elements such as “outside and inside”, “public and private”, and is used as a place where the elements are gently and continuously connected like a “Engawa”. I aimed for such a comfortable home.Save this picture!© Yashiro Photo OfficeSave this picture!PlanSave this picture!SectionSave this picture!© Yashiro Photo OfficeThe site is elongated from east to west, with a town road on the east side, and a slope-shaped forest on the west side of the site. In order to meet the limited cost requirements, we made the basic shape as simple as possible, secure a parking space, and place a building that summarizes each request on the site. Then, outside space is created on the road side (east) and the forest side (west) across the building. The most important LDK is placed in the center of the building, and an intermediate area with various functions is placed in the area that contacts the east and west exterior.Save this picture!© Yashiro Photo OfficeFurthermore, a space under the eaves will be set up outside. The eaves and roof shape create a semi-outdoor hangout outside, and at the same time create a variety of light and shadow changes inside. Each exterior space has the characteristics of a private exterior with a high degree of privacy and a public exterior with a high degree of publicity. Environmental elements such as light and wind that are enjoyed from these exterior spaces are internal through this intermediate area. Supplied to space.Save this picture!© Yashiro Photo OfficeIn addition, the building has a structure that descends in a staircase toward the outside of the site, allowing each space to have a character and at the same time gently connecting the place and the inside and outside. Morning sun enters the dining table from the east side in the morning, and a stable light shines in during the day. When preparing for dinner, the sunset colors the living room through the middle area from the back of the forest while appropriately blocking the western sun.Save this picture!© Yashiro Photo OfficeDepending on the season and time, sometimes as part of the LDK. Occasionally, as a place for hanging up laundry, a rich life that allows a variety of activities will develop as a place like this veranda. It is hoped that children will be able to memorize as a family landscape a life that travels freely between the outside and the inside in the light, shadow, and wind that change with time and season.Save this picture!© Yashiro Photo OfficeProject gallerySee allShow lessPrivate Residence No. 555 / FLXBL Design ConsultancySelected ProjectsXingfu Park Office Renovation / Atelier xySelected Projects Share CopyAbout this officeShohei Ota / ) architectsOfficeFollow#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesFukuokaOn FacebookJapanPublished on July 03, 2020Cite: “en House / Shohei Ota / ノarchitects” 02 Jul 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Community News Business News Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Make a comment 2 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Herbeauty8 Celebrities Who’ve Lost Their FandomsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty12 Most Breathtaking Trends In Fashion HistoryHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty11 Signs Your Perfectionism Has Gotten Out Of ControlHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty10 Questions To Start Conversation Way Better Than ‘How U Doing?’HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyWant To Seriously Cut On Sugar? You Need To Know A Few TricksHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty11 Yummy Spices For A Flat TummyHerbeautyHerbeauty Community News The Los Angeles County Sheriffâ€™s Department is seeking the publicâ€™s help in locating an 11-year-old girl who was reported missing Monday at Eaton Canyon in Altadena.The girl, who was reported missing about 1:45 p.m., was last seen wearing a pink shirt and white shorts.Anyone with any information regarding the childâ€™s whereabouts was asked to call the sheriffâ€™s Altadena station at (626) 798-1131. faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes More Cool Stuff Subscribe Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Top of the News Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS First Heatwave Expected Next Week latest #1 Young Girl Missing in Eaton Canyon Published on Monday, May 27, 2013 | 6:31 pm Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena
First Heatwave Expected Next Week 2 recommendedShareShareTweetSharePin it Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website Pasadena Police Department will be conducting a DUI/Driver’s License Checkpoint on Friday, July 26 at an undisclosed location within the city limits between the hours of 7:00 p.m. to 3:00 a.m.The Department reminds drivers that “DUI Doesn’t Just Mean Booze.” If you take prescription drugs, particularly those with a driving or operating machinery warning on the label, you might be impaired enough to get a DUI. Marijuana can also be impairing, especially in combination with alcohol or other drugs, and can result in a DUI. Driving after consuming or smoking marijuana, medical or otherwise, can result in a DUI.In 2017, 1,120 people were killed in alcohol-involved crashes on California roads. Last year Pasadena Police Department investigated 73 DUI collisions which claimed one life and resulted in another 32 injuries.Pasadena Police Department offers these reminders to ensure you have a safe night of fun that doesn’t involve a DUI:• Always use a designated sober driver — a friend who is not drinking, ride-share, cab or public transportation — to get home.• See someone who is clearly impaired try and drive? Take the keys and help them make other arrangements to find a sober way home.• Report drunk drivers — Call 911.• Hosting a party? Offer nonalcoholic drinks. Monitor who are drinking and how they are getting home.Getting home safely is cheap, but getting a DUI is not! Drivers caught driving impaired and charged with DUI can expect the impact of a DUI arrest to be upwards of $13,500. This includes fines, fees, DUI classes, license suspension and other expenses not to mention possible jail time.“This is our third DUI operation rounding out the month of July. Summer is a busy time for gatherings and travelling, and we want to do our part to make sure everyone is safe. DUI arrests are completely preventable. Avoiding arrest for DUI begins with making smart choices,” said Lieutenant Mark Goodman of the Pasadena Police Department Traffic Section. “Make the right choice by designating a sober driver or using a taxi or ride share service to get home safely.”Funding for this checkpoint is provided to Pasadena Police Department by a grant from the California Office of Traffic Safety, through the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Make a comment Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Public Safety Police Again Will Ramp Up a Checkpoint to Help Stamp Out DUI, Unlicensed Driving Published on Monday, July 22, 2019 | 1:48 pm Top of the News Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPasadena Public WorksPasadena Water and PowerPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Subscribe HerbeautyWant To Seriously Cut On Sugar? You Need To Know A Few TricksHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyFollow This Summer Most Popular Celeb Beauty TrendHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThis Trend Looks Kind Of Cool!HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyWhat’s Your Zodiac Flower Sign?HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty9 Of The Best Family Friendly Dog BreedsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty6 Trends To Look Like A Bombshell And 6 To Forget AboutHerbeautyHerbeauty Community News Community News Business News More Cool Stuff Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS
ColumnsThe Value Of Human Life And The Great Slippery Slope Argument Barnali Chowdhury20 May 2020 12:19 AMShare This – xModern Medicine has reached an age, where the Health care professionals intuitively seek to prolong life so long as it is possible to do so. Alternatively the Doctors may themselves raise the question, as to whether it is in the patient’s best interest that he or she should live. Two situations in which life and death decisions become fundamental and unavoidable are when we are born…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginModern Medicine has reached an age, where the Health care professionals intuitively seek to prolong life so long as it is possible to do so. Alternatively the Doctors may themselves raise the question, as to whether it is in the patient’s best interest that he or she should live. Two situations in which life and death decisions become fundamental and unavoidable are when we are born and when we are dying. Looking at the point of view of the patient, Euthanasia itself is categorized into – voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary categories, depending on whether the patient seeks death, is unable to express any opinion on the matter, or is ignored in the decision making process itself. While in the first category, the patient specifically requests that his life be ended, an act of involuntary Euthanasia, involves the ending of patient’s life in the absence of either a personal or proxy invitation to do so. The most common example of involuntary Euthanasia is ‘mercy killing’ by relatives or carers. On the contrary, argument on voluntary Euthanasia, rest on the principle of autonomy. The individual is the final arbiter of his or her destiny. In this piece an attempt shall be made to analyze the premature termination of life- which happens to be the simplest definition of the term Euthanasia- the primary focus of this paper. Endeavour shall be made, to discuss the approach adopted in England as well as in India. Some of the landmark decisions passed in this regard, both in the English continent as well as in India, shall also be examined. Compared to the practice prevalent in America, England or Switzerland where active euthanasia is in prevalence, one of the reason behind being that palliative care is poorly developed, Euthanasia is not the accepted practice in India. Worth pointing out that, in April 2002, the Dutch Parliament legalized Euthanasia, where it was actually in practice for two decades. In the United States, the Euthanasia Society of America was founded in 1938. It is considered either as Suicide (if performed by the patient himself) or as murder or abetment to commit suicide (if performed by another) which are offences which come within the ambit of section 309, 302 and 306 IPC respectively. Central to the theme of beneficent killing or voluntary Euthanasia, is the great slippery slope argument, and the concept of personhood, advocated by Academics. The argument is simple in form: if we adopt such and such a particular change in practices, it just might start a slide into a moral deterioration that it might start a slide into moral deterioration that ends with our committing Nazi style atrocities. Possibly, the lone argument that we can think of in justifying Euthanasia is to conclude that individuals in Permanent Vegetative state, as Tony Bland, whose case will be discussed below, has lost his personhood. But the value associated with every life, does it at all diminish, is the moot question that requires deliberation. Approach adopted by the English courts: Inclusive vs Objective approaches to the best interests test The common law approach to providing medical treatment is not based on patients’ subjective rights, but on an objective duty to care imposed on the medical team. When patients are competent they are involved in the decision-making process affecting them and, in some cases, they may be able to choose between possible treatments; they may also refuse treatment, but they may not request a particular medical treatment The overseeing of law over the administration of pain-relieving treatment with inevitable life-shortening consequences is of crucial significance in view of the dogmatic approach of the law to active euthanasia. As Lanham states in respect of society’s treatment of terminal physical pain: ‘If the euthanasia option is not available, some other method will have to be found’. In Britain and Australia that method involves palliative care and the hospice movement. Quite contrary on the other hand is the approach adopted by Switzerland, where assisted suicide was decriminalized way back in 1942. There in Switzerland, ever since 2003, the controversial clinic named Dignitas functions, and it has helped around 100 people from Britain end their lives and a further 690 are reported to be members, which means they may in future opt to travel there for an assisted suicide. In the English continent, the initial trend was that, causing death in order to relieve a patient of further pain and suffering amounted to murder. This was the decision arrived at in the case of R v Cox, decided in the year 1992. Soon thereafter the view changed, and knowingly shortening life through the administration of pain killing drugs was considered lawful by the House of Lords, in Airedale NHS Hospital Trust v Bland. The House of Lords Select Committee Report on Medical Ethics also rejected legally permitted active Euthanasia, whilst at the same time accepted the legality of giving life-shortening pain relief. The distinction drawn in both law and ethics typically revolves around assessments of actor’s intention i.e. mens rea and implicitely the Doctrine of Double Effect.  According to the doctrine, all intended bad ends and all bad means chosen to achieve ends are morally wrong. By contrast, unintended but foreseen consequences are side-effects, which may be justified according to the totality of the circumstances! P. Knauer, in his famous essay, ‘The Hermeneutic Function of the Principle of Double Effect’ states the principle more simply in the following terms: ‘One may permit the evil effect of his act only if this is not intended in itself but is indirect and justified by a commensurate reason’. Year 2004, the decision arrived at by the High Court in R. (on the application of Burke) v General Medical Council,  provided the first example of human dignity being used as a central argument by an English court. In it, the applicant suffered from a congenital degenerative brain condition (spino-cerebellar ataxia) and wanted to ensure that he will continue to receive artificial nutrition and hydration (” ANH” ) in the penultimate stage of his illness, when he will still be sentient but unable to communicate. Basing his reasoning on the notions of autonomy, dignity and self-determination, the Queen’s Bench Division of the High Court upheld the applicant’s claim. The General Medical Council then preferred an Appeal against the judgment passed by the High Court and Court of Appeal Court decided the case a year later. A rather conservative approach to the best interests test, was adopted by the Appeal Court that concluded that, ‘the GMC guidelines did allow for the patient’s protection in the final stages of his illness’ and thus the first instance decision was overturned. Leave of appeal to the House of Lords was refused. Thereafter, on May 17, 2006, Leslie Burke lodged an application with the European Court of Human Rights (” ECtHR” ). Largely endorsing the approach of the Court of Appeal, the ECtHR delivered its decision of inadmissibility on July 11, 2006. Unlike the High Court, neither the Court of Appeal nor the Strasbourg Court considered the argument of human dignity, and their decision therefore seems to have put an end to the judicial development of this concept in relation to withdrawal of medical treatment. As elaborated in the preceding paragraph, the Indian judicial system does not accept Euthanasia. Some of the important decisions in this regard, are P. Rathinam v Union of India; Gian Kaur v State of Punjab . In the first case, Section 309 I.P.C. and the right to die vis-à-vis Article 21 of the Constitution of India was considered. Hon’ble Justice B.L. Hansaria, who authored the Judgment, started by quoting Mahatma Gandhi and William Ernst Henley- the celebrated English poet. Drawing a distinction between Suicide and Euthanasia , the two Judge Bench of the Supreme Court though held that, Article 21 has enough positive content in it that it also includes the right to die, and the right to commit suicide. The Court was further of the view that, Section 309 of the Penal Code deserves to be effaced from the statute book to humanise our penal laws. However, in Gian Kaur v State of Punjab,a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court held that , Article 21 is a provision guaranteeing protection of life and personal liberty and by no stretch of imagination, extinction of life be read to be included in ‘protection of life’.In the landmark case of Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug v Union of India , a writ Petition was preferred under Article 32 of the Constitution of India, by a next friend of Aruna Shanbaug, Pinky Virani. Without much deliberation on the facts of the poignant case of Aruna, it may be stated here the approach adopted by the Apex Court. After examining the report of the Doctors the Supreme Court held that, it was not in the patient’s best interest to let her die. The Judges were particularly appreciative of the hospital and their staff and their dedicated service to her. Post Aruna Shanbaug, in its 241st Report, the Law Commission of India, has also recognized Passive Euthanasia, but no law has been enacted by it. The law on Passive Euthanasia and withholding or withdrawing life prolonging treatment of terminally ill patient, was expanded further by the Constitution Bench of the Hon’ble Supreme Court, on 9th of March, 2018, in the case of Common Cause (A registered Society ) v Union of India and Another. While deliberating on the difficulties faced by patients who are unable to express their wishes, at the time of taking the decision, the five Judge Bench of the Hon’ble Supreme Court, was of the view that Advance Medical Directive would serve as a fruitful means to facilitate the fructification of the sacrosanct right to life with dignity. In its further deliberation on who can execute the Advance Directive and how- the Hon’ble Court was of the view that, it can be executed only by an adult who is of a sound and healthy state of mind and in a position to communicate, relate and comprehend the purpose and consequences of executing the document. The Court thus outlined the procedure for execution of the Advance Directive, as such: ‘198.1.2. It must be ‘voluntarily executed and without any coercion or inducement or compulsion and after having full knowledge or information’; 198.1.3 It should have the characteristics of informed consent given without any undue influence or constraints; 198.1.4 It shall be in writing clearly stating as to when medical treatment may be withdrawn or no specific medical treatment shall be given which will only have the effect of delaying the process of death that may otherwise cause him/ her pain, anguish and suffering and further put him/ her in a state of indignity’. From the above discussion it is seen that, the Courts have always used the best interest test, in weighing whether Euthanasia is justifiable or not. Again the argument of personhood comes in everytime its legality is weighed. Infact when weighed from the angle of personhood and the value of life, the only way to justify the judgment delivered in Bland by the House of Lords, where the patient Tony Bland was in persistent vegetative state, is to argue that individuals in persistent vegetative state have permanently lost their personhood. Quite contrary was the reasoning of the Supreme Court of India, in Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug. Seen from a broader angle, in the event a person is incompetent to make choices, his wishes expressed in advance in the form of a Living Will, or the wishes of surrogates acting on his behalf (“substituted judgment”) are to be respected'. Critics as such argue that, human dignity is not a simple concept and certainly not easy to use in judicial reasoning. In some situations, such as in the case of Burke, where the applicant, wanted to ensure that he will continue to receive artificial nutrition and hydration, in the penultimate stage of his illness, the argument of living a dignified life until its end, arguably comes very close, to that of a dignified death. However, dignified death being too close to euthanasia, was ruled unacceptable by the European Court of Human Rights. Quite contrary, was the reasoning in Tony Bland’s case. Meanwhile in the absence of any statute or an amended law, Judges and academics have a role to play in addressing the issues of dignity while justifying the concept of Euthanasia- which according to a critic like me, cannot see any justification, when weighed in the light of the value attached to every life. Cause, every life in this world matters seen from the angle of personhood! Views Are Personal Only  Mason & Mc Call Smith’s, ‘Medical Futility’ (Law and Medical Ethics, Seventh Edition, Oxford University Press)  Ibid  Supra at n.1  Brazier & Cave, ‘Medicines, Patients and the Law’ (Fourth Edition: Penguin Books)  Keneddy and Grubb, Medical Law: Texts and Materials, p 1997.  David Lanham ‘Euthanasia, Painkilling, Murder and Manslaughter’ (1994) l(3) Journal of Law and Medicine 146, 147. In the US, doctors are reluctant to administer pain relief in life-shortening doses whatever pain the patient may be suffering, yet euthanasia is also unlawful, creating obvious quandaries: (1996) 313 BMJ 1  Modi, A Textbook of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology, (published by Lexis Nexis Butterworths, 24th Edition, 2011  Ibid.  J.A. Burgess, ‘The great slippery slope argument’ (1993) Jol. Medical Ethics 169  David Price, ‘Euthanasia, Pain Relief and double effect’  D Lanham ‘Euthanasia, Painkilling, Murder and Manslaughter’ (1994) l(3) Journal of Law and Medicine 146, 147. In the US, doctors are reluctant to administer pain relief in life-shortening doses whatever pain the patient may be suffering, yet euthanasia is also unlawful, creating obvious quandaries: (1996) 313 BMJ 11   12 B.M.L.R. 38   1 All E.R. 821  Report of the Select Committee on Medical Ethics HL Paper 21-1 HMSO, 1994.  David Price, ‘Euthanasia, Pain relief and double effect’, Journal of Legal Studies 323  P Knauer ‘The Hermeneutic Function of the Principle of Double Effect’ (1962) 12 Natural Law Forum 132 at 136.   EWCA Civ 10003=  Q.B. 424  (1994) 3 SCC 394  (1996) 2 SCC 648  AIR 1996 SC 1257  (2011) 4 SCC 454.  Ibid  (2018) 5 SCC 1  Supra at Para 198  John Harris, ‘Human beings, persons and Conjoined Twins: An Ethical Analysis’ (2001) 9 M.L.R.221  Supra at n 20  (2018) 5 SCC 1 Para 173 at Page 123   EWCA Civ 10003 Next Story
Top StoriesCMA Exams 2021 : Plea In Supreme Court Seeks Cancellation Of ICMAI’s Online Tests For Alleged Malpractices LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK21 March 2021 8:47 PMShare This – xA writ petition has been filed in the Supreme Court seeking to cancel the home-based online tests of Cost Management Accounting(CMA) intermediate and final levelss held by the Institute of Cost Accountants of India(ICMAI) in January-February 2021.The petition filed by a student of Cost Management Accounting(CMA) Final course, who alleges widespread malpractices in the exam, which affected…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginA writ petition has been filed in the Supreme Court seeking to cancel the home-based online tests of Cost Management Accounting(CMA) intermediate and final levelss held by the Institute of Cost Accountants of India(ICMAI) in January-February 2021.The petition filed by a student of Cost Management Accounting(CMA) Final course, who alleges widespread malpractices in the exam, which affected its credibility and sanctity.According to the petitioner, the online home-based exams were conducted by the same vendor which had already failed in providing reliable Remote Proctoring for the National Law Admission Test(NLAT) of September-2020, which was ultimately set aside by the Supreme Court in the case Rakesh Kumar Agarwalla & Another Vs. National Law School of India University Bengaluru and Others. The Supreme Court had cancelled the NLAT in September last week on the ground that the home-based online test failed in ensuring transparency, fairness and integrity which are essential in an exam process.It was on October 18, 2020 that the ICMAI took the decision to hold home-based online tests. The petitioner says that this decision was taken overlooking the reservations expressed by three senior members of the council regarding home-based online test.In a reply to an application under the RTI, the ICMAI informed that about 65% of the students had opted for the CENTER-BASED Examination. In spite of that, the Institute continued to persist with its earlier decision of Home-based remote AI-proctored examination for about 23,500 students.The petitioner alleges that “mass-scale cheating” was reported when the exams started in January 2021, with answers being circulated on WhatsApp and live exam sessions being shared on Social mediaThough the students reported such instances to the authorities, the petitioner alleges that no action was taken.Instead of taking cognizance of large-scale cheating complaints, the petitioner says that the ICAI issued a circular which slammed the reports of cancellation of exams as “false propaganda”. Further, the ICMAI said in the circular that it has lodged an FIR against “miscreants trying to degrade the dignity and integrity of the examination”.The petitioner alleges that the Institute chose to intimidate the whistleblower students by official threats of police actions and severe rustication alleging malafide intent to defame the Institute.The petitioner further says that diverse technical glitches showed up in the live-examination, and human-proctor support was found to be grossly inadequate. This led to the affected students frantically writing to the Examination Department. The complaints were so overwhelming that the Examination Department was immobilised and couldn’t answer them at all, thereby leaving exam-facing students in panic, the petitioner alleges.”Instead of acknowledging the proctoring failures and initiating effective counter-measure OR suspending further conduct of the examination, the Institute chose to label all Whistle-blowers as TROUBLE-MAKERS, directed them to cease sharing their concerns publicly and threatened them of debarring for up to FIVE YEARS”, the petition says.The petitioner says that even two months after widespread reporting of malpractices in the Examination, the Institute has not initiated any forensic verification of video-evidence submitted by the students. It is said that due to severe technical glitches, the exams got stretched over a period of 8 weeks, for 24 days, from rom 03.01.2021 to 24.02.2021 instead of normal schedule of just 8 days. The Institute of Cost Accountants of India is a national body established in 1959 under an Act of Parliament. Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Story